The Moon is familiar as it stands in our sky as a star whose apparent diameter allows us to distinguish details. Because of the strong attraction of the Earth, we always see the same face. The Luna 3 probe in 1959 was the first to go and photograph the hidden face.
Smaller than the Earth, the Moon has no atmosphere. The temperature differences between the lunar day (which lasts 28 Earth days) and night are important. All meteorites reach the ground which is riddled with impacts.