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Understanding > Astronomical calculations > Phenomena VIII

Canon of the transits of Mercury in front of the Sun

for the period 1631 - 2100



For each transit, we provide the following information :

  • The number of the transit in the complete original canon
  • The date of the middle of the transit (day/month/year).
  • The timing of the topocentric maximum in UTC.
  • The type of transit (P : partial, C : central, NC : non central).
  • The minimum topocentric distance between the centre of the Sun and the centre of the planet in minutes and secondes of degrees.
  • The duration of the general phase of the transit.

Date Instant UT Type Distance Duration
626 07/11/1631  07h20h34s NC 02'22.30" 05h26m42s
627 09/11/1644  00h56h38s NC 10'36.96" 04h09m06s
628 03/11/1651  00h52h06s NC 12'26.56" 03h33m06s
629 03/05/1661  16h54h16s NC 04'16.15" 07h42m13s
630 04/11/1664  18h31h55s NC 04'06.24" 05h20m18s
631 07/05/1674  00h16h30s NC 12'48.32" 04h46m41s
632 07/11/1677  12h10h43s NC 04'04.60" 05h19m27s
633 10/11/1690  05h42h55s NC 12'17.99" 03h34m58s
634 03/11/1697  05h41h27s NC 10'42.99" 04h09m11s
635 05/05/1707  23h31h46s NC 00'57.48" 07h59m53s
636 06/11/1710  23h21h33s NC 02'21.06" 05h27m30s
637 09/11/1723  16h58h35s NC 05'46.46" 05h08m15s
638 11/11/1736  10h29h44s NC 13'58.91" 02h47m40s
639 02/05/1740  23h01h57s NC 14'41.82" 03h04m57s
640 05/11/1743  10h29h46s NC 08'58.26" 04h36m24s
641 06/05/1753  06h12h50s NC 02'11.49" 07h56m24s
642 07/11/1756  04h10h32s NC 00'38.45" 05h30m42s
643 09/11/1769  21h46h16s NC 07'29.91" 04h52m23s
644 02/11/1776  21h35h48s NC 15'39.68" 01h26m48s
645 12/11/1782  15h16h01s NC 15'40.48" 01h27m13s
646 04/05/1786  05h41h14s NC 11'21.99" 05h34m39s
647 05/11/1789  15h18h37s NC 07'15.79" 04h56m31s
648 07/05/1799  12h50h22s NC 05'32.45" 07h30m56s
649 09/11/1802  08h58h23s NC 00'56.75" 05h30m14s
650 12/11/1815  02h33h13s NC 09'11.96" 04h31m31s
651 05/11/1822  02h24h23s NC 13'54.66" 02h51m03s
652 05/05/1832  12h25h22s NC 07'57.72" 06h54m03s
653 07/11/1835  20h07h41s NC 05'32.32" 05h11m34s
654 08/05/1845  19h36h51s NC 09'00.07" 06h36m55s
655 09/11/1848  13h47h32s NC 02'38.88" 05h26m06s
656 12/11/1861  07h19h24s NC 10'53.79" 04h04m15s
657 05/11/1868  07h13h57s NC 12'10.99" 03h39m26s
658 06/05/1878  18h59h59s NC 04'40.32" 07h37m43s
659 08/11/1881  00h57h17s NC 03'47.68" 05h22m13s
660 10/05/1891  02h21h59s NC 12'26.46" 05h00m38s
661 10/11/1894  18h34h48s NC 04'22.07" 05h18m07s
662 14/11/1907  12h06h39s NC 12'34.55" 03h28m25s
663 07/11/1914  12h02h58s NC 10'26.61" 04h14m11s
664 08/05/1924  01h40h58s NC 01'17.55" 07h58m09s
665 10/11/1927  05h45h32s NC 02'04.58" 05h28m37s
666 11/05/1937  08h59h41s P 15'48.45" 01h00m05s
667 11/11/1940  23h21h06s NC 06'04.36" 05h06m08s
668 14/11/1953  16h53h39s NC 14'17.67" 02h36m30s
669 06/05/1957  01h14h36s NC 15'00.36" 02h41m18s
670 07/11/1960  16h52h48s NC 08'43.78" 04h39m53s
671 09/05/1970  08h16h11s NC 01'47.05" 07h57m04s
672 10/11/1973  10h32h15s NC 00'22.27" 05h31m13s
673 13/11/1986  04h06h60s NC 07'46.43" 04h49m38s
674 06/11/1993  03h56h15s NC 15'22.59" 01h45m54s
675 15/11/1999  21h40h44s NC 15'58.90" 00h59m52s
676 07/05/2003  07h52h37s NC 11'41.32" 05h23m59s
677 08/11/2006  21h40h53s NC 06'58.78" 04h59m38s
678 09/05/2016  14h57h14s NC 05'11.48" 07h33m51s
679 11/11/2019  15h19h31s NC 01'11.82" 05h30m11s
680 13/11/2032  08h53h38s NC 09'27.98" 04h27m55s
681 07/11/2039  08h46h01s NC 13'38.12" 03h00m12s
682 07/05/2049  14h23h48s NC 08'24.81" 06h45m06s
683 09/11/2052  02h29h22s NC 05'14.56" 05h14m01s
684 10/05/2062  21h36h41s NC 08'33.46" 06h45m04s
685 11/11/2065  20h05h56s NC 02'56.62" 05h25m20s
686 14/11/2078  13h40h47s NC 11'10.18" 03h59m16s
687 07/11/2085  13h34h17s NC 11'54.38" 03h45m53s
688 08/05/2095  21h05h32s NC 05'02.76" 07h33m09s
689 10/11/2098  07h16h36s NC 03'30.55" 05h23m53s

For the calculation of this canon we used the following physical parameters : 

  • the horizontal parallax of the Sun at one astronomical unit = 8.794148".
  • the solar semi-diameter = 15´ 59.63".
  • the ratio of the radius of Mercury on the equatorial radius of the Earth: k = 0.3825096.
  • the equatorial radius of the Earth = 6378140m.
  • the square of the ellipticity of the terrestrial ellipsoid = 0.00669438.

For the calculations of the ephemerides of the planets Mercury and the Earth, we used the following theoretical models : 

  • The planetary theories SLP98 under the form of series of Tchebychev polynomials produced by G. Francou from the planetary theories VSOP87 (P. Bretagnon and G. Francou, 1988).
  • the theorie of precession by Lieske (1976).
  • the theorie of nutation by Wahr (1981).
  • the formula of the sidereal time by Aoki (1992).

For the old periods, the difference between the Universal Time (UT) and the terrestrial time (TT) is calculated thanks to formulae provided by J. Chapront, M. Chapront and G. Francou (1997). For the future, this difference is extrapolated thanks to the last known values. 

click here for a detailed explanation of the transits in front of the Sun