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Newton (1642-1727)
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Newton (1642-1727) sets the theory of the universal gravitation and clearly defines the concepts of mass and force. The principle of attraction of bodies according to the inverse square of the distance will explain the motion of planets observed by Kepler, tides and the flattening of the Earth.

Newton understood the first one that the apple falling from a tree and the Moon moving on its orbit are the consequences of the same principle. His theory will be taken in fault only by the excess of motion of the perihelion of Mercury, only understandable with Einstein's theory of general relativity.